PPP in Netherland

PPP in the Netherlands refers to long-term cooperation between public authorities and private companies in the joint implementation of projects based on the division of tasks, responsibilities and risks. Public-private partnership in most cases includes funding for projects by private companies.

In implementing the PPP government acts as a customer, which defines the desired result of business participation in the projects and monitors the implementation of projects. Executor offer forms, mechanisms and means of implementation. The main objectives of the PPP is to accelerate the implementation and optimization of projects: maximization of quality while minimizing fixed costs or fixed costs of the end product by the use of experience and innovation capabilities of companies.

The main areas of the PPP applications in the Netherlands are the major investment projects in the field of construction and infrastructure development.

One of the most common forms of PPP in the Netherlands is the design, construction, financing, maintenance (and management) - DBFM (O): design, build, finance, maintain (and operate). DBFM (O) is a form of contract providing for the transfer of the customer (the state) of the various phases of the construction project, including financing, to executor(private companies). The costs of the project are bored by executor. Payment for his services are done on a periodical basis in accordance with pre-agreed results of its operations. Often a consortium of several organizations perform the role of the executor.

Perspective form of PPP in the Netherlands is also considered contracts for design and construction (DB), as well as for the design, construction and maintenance (DBM), especially in cases where it is a relatively low-cost projects.

There is no special legal framework of PPP in the Netherlands. The application of PPP mechanisms governed by the general rules of law (constitutional, civil, tax). The political basis of PPP in the Netherlands was founded report "Getting the value added through collaboration" (Proceedings of the Lower House of the Parliament of the Netherlands for the period 1997-1998, Volume 2), which sets out the basic principles of the PPP and the requirements for it. They were further practical development in some orders taken at the level of ministries and departments. So, the questions reflected the PPP, in particular, in the position of the Ministry of Finance of the Netherlands (№ BWBR0018723), according to which this ministry and the General Treasury of exercise recommendatory function in relation to the implementation of public-private partnerships. The Ministry of Finance of the Netherlands controls the contracts between government and business, and ensures the effectiveness of public investment.

The most active customers within the PPP are the Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment of the Netherlands (October 2010 have been merged into a single entity - the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment of the Netherlands), the Ministry of Defence of the Netherlands, the State Service of water management and The State Building Service.

Among the major PPP projects that have been implemented or are under development in the Netherlands, are the following:

• construction and exploitation of highways, tunnels and railways;

• Development of inland waterways;

• construction, reconstruction, repair and maintenance of residential buildings and complexes, buildings, ministries, departments and public organizations;

With the initiative of the State Service for water management in the Netherlands was set up knowledge center in the field of PPP, which promotes the wider use of the experience gained in the implementation of public-private partnerships, and dissemination of relevant information to interested parties. The center also develops PPP tools (such as standard contracts in this sector and mechanisms for determining the efficiency of cooperation between the state and business.) The outcome of this activity is regularly informed by the Center to the lower house of parliament, the Centre cooperates with the Dutch ministries and companies, as well as with foreign partners (mainly France, the UK and Germany). During these contacts, the exchange of information is realized, especially with the new members of the EU and other countries, capacity building in the field of PPP. This is facilitated, in particular, by trainings and seminars, including international, organized by the Center.

For all the projects included in the long-term plan for infrastructure development, spatial planning and transport in the Netherlands, identifies ways to optimize their implementation. In particular, conducted market research to demonstrate the possibility of accelerating the implementation of projects to improve the quality of the final product or to reduce costs by bringing to market participants, also a comparison of the benefits (in terms of the timing of and costs) of the traditional project financing and the use of PPPs (Public- Private Comparator). This procedure applies to all of the planned projects worth more than EUR 60 million. In the case of choice in favor of PPP is sampled best performer (performers).

Thus, the main effort in the field of PPP in the Netherlands focused primarily on the efficient and rapid development of infrastructure and strengthening the construction of nationally important sites.

With further development of PPPs more emphasis will be placed on the development of infrastructure at the regional and municipal levels. It should also be noted that by the PPP projects are involved almost exclusively Dutch companies.